In Week 3 you submitted your test specifications (ATTACHED). Now, you should incorporate your Instructor’s feedback (ATTACHED)and create your test items. Remember to write your items so that they are clear and unambiguous. Avoid compound items (e.g., “I am happy most days and I usually like to smile”). Also make sure that the items are representative of the construct that you are measuring.
Submit by Day 7, test items for your assessment, based on your test specifications.
Running head: TEST SPECIFICATIONS 1
TEST SPECIFICATIONS 5
Determine whether you want to measure a trait, ability, emotional state, disorder, interest, attitude or another construct:
( Ability, such as musical skill, writing skill, intelligence, or reading comprehension, ( Personality Trait, such as extroversion, creativity, or deviousness, ( Disorder, such as anxiety, depression, or psychotic thought disorder, ( Emotion, such as happiness or anger, ( Attitude, such as authoritarianism or prejudice, ( Interest, such as career-related interests.
( Other: ____________________________
Describe the specific construct you want to measure in a word or two: Entrepreneurship
Now describe the construct using several sentences. What behaviors are associated with the construct? Does it include more than one quality or dimension?
According to the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and National Council on Measurement in Education (2014), test and test programs are designed and developed to ensure validity of the explanations of test scores. The American Educational Research et al. (2014) states that test specifications should provide the purpose of the test, the description of construct measured, the population and interpretation for intended use. Also, the construct is the concept or characteristics that a test is designed to measure (The American Educational Research et al., 2014). Entrepreneurship spirit is the ability to establish and run a new business in a successful manner (De Jong, Parker, Wennekers, & Wu, 2015). The construct is expected to cover tolerance in the calculation of financial risks, creativity to establish a business plan for the management of people and resources needed to establish and complete the plan. Entrepreneurial behavior has two alternative desires. The first one is the desire to alter the status quo and the second one is the behavior of embracing innovation and motivation to look for changes in the status quo and obtain satisfaction form institutional dynamite. It is in my expectation to get the correlation between the past, present, and future business endeavors.
Describe your process for initially generating items. Will you interview experts? Review textbooks or journal articles? Look at diagnostic criteria in the DSM?
Anastasi and Urbina (1997) believes that personality test are used to measure characteristics as emotional states, interpersonal relation, interests, motivation and attitudes (p.44). My process for initially generating items includes; investigation of the ideas that drive the entrepreneur wiliness to take risks in a business venture, the profitability of the business, and the future success of the business. This can be describes through application of performance or situational tests. Anastasi et al., (1997) states that performance or situational test are done when the examinee is not aware of what’s going on and stimulates everyday life situation for an entrepreneur. This process will interview at least four entrepreneurs who have been successful in their businesses. However, the interview will be done and questionnaires given on the ideas and concepts of each entrepreneurs beliefs of what it means to be a successful entrepreneur. Therefore, I will included how their day to day operations is ran effectively and how they maintain this operation. Moreover, the use of secondary research will be used in this process to establish characteristics that are associated with the success of the business. De Jong et al., (2015)
Think about the format and phrasing of your items. For instance, some tests use first-person statements, such as “I enjoy swimming,” while others use questions, such as “Do you enjoy swimming?” Other tests might use single-word prompts, such as “Swimming,” and ask for the test-taker to rate this and other words on a scale of 1–5 in order to indicate the degree of interest or enjoyment. Some tests use pictures rather than words, and some are administered to an informant other than the client, such as a parent or work supervisor.
Think about the response format for your items. Yes/No responses or a Likert scale are popular for personality tests. If you use a Likert scale, consider how many response options there will be and whether your scale will have a neutral midpoint. Multiple-choice is a format that is familiar with academic tests. (Some tests use open-ended responses, but this is difficult to score and too complex for this exercise.)
Now write one typical item for your test, demonstrating your item and response format:
AlFallay (2017) states that a scorecard measures and compares key performance indicators against goals and is highly effective in entrepreneurship, which rates the success and failures of an individuals efforts. Sohn (2016) describes a study of how scorecards were used to identify psychological and behavioral attributes of entrepreneur’s personal traits. These scorecards will consist of questions where the entrepreneur can vividly explain the steps that are clearly required for one to start a new business. I can develop a scorecard of values between 1 and 4, where 1 represents the list value of the measurement and 4 represents the higher value of the measurement. For example, 1 = strongly disagree. 2 = dosage, 3 = agree, 4 = strongly agree (AlFallay, 2017).
How many items will your initial test include? Keep in mind that you need to create about twice as many test items initially because you will discard about half of them during your item analysis. ___18 items______
AlFallay, I. S. (2017). Test specifications and blueprints: reality and expectations. International journal of instruction, 11(1), 195-210.
American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (2014). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.
Anastasi, A., & Urbina, S. (1997). Psychological testing (7th ed.).Upper Saddle River: NJ. Prentice Hall.
De Jong, J. P., Parker, S. K., Wennekers, S., & Wu, C. H. (2015). Entrepreneurial behavior in organizations: does job design matter. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 39(4), 981-995.
Sohn, S. Y. (2016). Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process applied to technology scorecard considering entrepreneurs’ psychological and behavioral attributes. Journal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems, 30(4), 2349-2364.
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