Tlmt 601 19788355

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Will be checked for plagiarism 
Please answer original for with a minimum of 250 words and respond to both students separately with a minimum of 100 word each 
page 1 original forum with references 
page 2 Benjamin response with references 
page 3 kim response with references 
Original Forum 
From your readings this week or outside research, pick one type of pollution impact, therefore, air, noise or ecosystem to address the issue of cost. How would one go about quantifying the impact of such a pollution method. Also, identify which transportation mode would be the most likely contributor to the pollution impact of  your choice.
student Response 
According to Sinha and Labi (2007), there are multiple factors and mechanisms that together, constitute the visual performance impact.  Factors include transportation facility characteristics (type, dimension, shape), the stage of completion of the project, sensitivity of the viewer, and landscape characteristics. Aesthetics are may not directly play to the increase in efficiency or performance of a product directly. However, by having better aesthetics in a product, service, or location it can be viewed as superior to the competition. Visual appearance can enhance the experience of the customer. When there are two similar products that provide the same service a customer will chose the one cleaner more visual appealing option. One of the most effective ways of differentiating products is using visual aesthetics. Visual aesthetics of products can increase or decrease the value for consumers. Visual aesthetics create significant value for product and can separate the product significant from its competition. Also, level of price sensitivity of consumer decreases when the product is more unique and the visual appearance of the product is more appealing. This can be seen a lot in the car industry a ford and BMW might do the exact same thing for the consumer however one may be more appealing to the customer based off the design of the product. This is an example of the visual aesthetic and how they can play a pivotal role in pricing as well as marketing for products. 
Sinha, K. C., & Labi, S. (2007). Transportation decision making: Principles of project evaluation and programming . Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
                              Transportation is just vital to the economy, but it affects the environment in negative ways. In fact, transportation also is affected by the environment as harsh weather impedes traffic. Rodrigue (2020) pointed out that priorities between environmental and economic considerations shift in time. I think they are equally important. There are different transportation activities that pollute the environment such as operation, manufacturing, maintenance and disposal in vehicles, trains, ships, and air planes, and these transportation modes are for people and freight. How we can quantify the impact of pollution is complicated. Measuring each pollutant can be expressed in some sort of units of measures, for example, carbon monoxide level is expressed in ppm or noise level expressed in dB. However, the total impact is complicated to calculate to establish basis for cost analysis because it’s not just affecting the environment, but society, and people’s health. 
                           Noise is defined as unwanted or excessive sound and one of the most widely experienced environmental externalities associated with transportation systems (Sinha & Labi, 2007). Transportation is the major cause of noise but unlike greenhouse emission or water resources pollution, it is not quite spotlighted.     Noise does not cause any direct environmental damage but incurs costs for society in the form of disturbances for the individual (sleep, conversation, recreation, etc.), worsened health and loss of production (Andersson et al., 2013). The most likely contributing modes are vehicles on roadways, rail and air planes. Noise is described more completely when combined with descriptions of loudness and frequency (Sinha and Labi, 2007). Sinha and Labi (2007) also discuss that loudness is not the only measure for noise pollution. The percentage of trucks on the road, pavement type, vehicle speed, frequency of the noise, and how long of the noise is occurring – all these factors also need be considered. The authors show how to analyze noise impact with formulas. But as they mentioned, noise is subjective, each individual has different levels of tolerance and preference. How do we perform a benefit and cost analysis for noise pollution?
Andersson, H., Jonsson, L., & Ogren, M. (2013). Benefit measures for noise abatement: calculations for road and rail traffic noise. Eur. Transp. Res. Rev. (2013) 5:135–148. DOI 10.1007/s12544-013-0091-3.
Sinha, K. C., & Labi, S. (2007). Transportation decision making: Principles of project evaluation and programming . Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 11.
Rodrigue. J.P (2020). Geography of Transport Systems. Fifth Edition.  Chapter 4.
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