I waan responses for these posts there are for posts and the references in APA style
Post 1 )Discuss common themes across the assigned journal articles relative to public health preparedness from the emergency and disaster healthcare perspective.
Public health aim is to prevent adverse health outcomes and reduce the risk of any diseases. Public health concentrate on the health of the population and their interventions in the long-term effect. The relationships between public health and emergency management come after the event of September 11, 2001, and continually evolve. Public health emergency preparedness includes prevention, mitigation, and recovery. Public health preparedness, include operational capabilities, possessing capabilities requires capacity, it requires continuous improvement, including frequent testing of plans through drills and exercises and the formulation and execution of corrective action plans. It also includes the practice of improving the health and resiliency of communities.
In several articles training was one of the common themes, training for the emergency department workers is deficient in disaster preparedness. In addition, there must be well coordinated to have effective training in the disaster preparedness that involve both professional and continuing education. This will help to ensure that emergency personnel is current in the needed disaster skills that help the population. To achieve and have improved skills in disaster preparedness and response, the medical community must have rigorous research on the effectiveness of the training to public health personnel and develop standardized training evaluation method. Moreover, the education and training of the EMTs and all responders are different from one state to another.
Another theme is communication, as it mentioned in one of the articles that communication between emergency providers, other healthcare and public safety provider is really limited. The limitation is due to incompatible voice communication system that caused a lack of coordination between different responders. In addition, public health agencies involved in different of public communication during the disaster such as inform the population and encourage them about preventive behavior. According to Revere et al. (2001) the most common public health emergency preparedness communication that found in different studies were about information exposure, trust and credibility in information sources, in emergency preparedness specifically were, preventive behaviors, knowledge, and awareness about specific threats and risk perceptions. Lastly, communication and public health warning is really important public health capability to mitigate the impact of an emergency and to speed up recovery after a crisis.
Post 2) For me what I saw mostly was an inability for these agencies to be working together. With the considerations for the state, federal or local levels, the lack of communication and important interagency relations and systems to communicate information, understand responsibilities, jurisdictions and much more was lacking significantly. Additionally, that there is no credible or universal training for responders which also could be solved by more connected relationship between levels of government and agencies giving opportunities to universalize training.
One article explained that â€œMost EMS personnel have received little or no disaster response training for terrorist attacks, natural disasters, or other public health emergencies.â€ (Committee on the future of emergency care in the United States health system 2007). But there seems to be no real responsibility or accountability for the proper training or the lack of proper training for these individuals. There is then another problem when we consider that if all agencies and levels of government are incorporated into the conversation, it’s hard to figure out who SHOULD be responsible.
It becomes a more complicated question as we have more help, because there is more confusion and less understanding of roles. Universalizing a standard for this type of training seems to be something that is absolutely necessary but it cannot be found. What about the many small private organizations that employ EMS professionals? What standards are they held to in their training of responders for disaster? Also, what about owners, operators and dispatchers? What role and responsibility to they have to their own training and the training of their employees? These are very important questions to ask.
Post1) Children are emotionally vulnerable during a disaster. However, children react to disasters depending on various circumstances, such as the amount of support they receive during and after an emergency and their extent of exposure to the disaster (Saylor, 2013). During a disaster, children battle short- and long-term psychological effects.
Long-Term Emotional Effects:
Children often experience post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is associated with feelings of insecurity, and confusion.
A significant number of children suffer from depression due to loss of family members and physical pain.
Children may develop a phobia for high-rise buildings and water.
Short-Term Emotional Effects:
Children affected by disasters may exhibit short-term psychological effects such as:
Concentration, attention, and memory disturbances.
Reuniting minors who have been separated from their guardians during a disaster should be given priority. The reunification process requires effective coordination of available resources and efforts from all relevant stakeholders at the local and national levels (Chung & Blake, 2014). Stakeholders may adopt the following planning considerations when adopting reunification processes into disaster preparedness plans:
Identify the minor; notably, private and public entities should identify children separated from their parents or guardians.
Implement the tracking process, which entails verifying the parentsâ€™ identity with the child.
Reunite the parents with the child if their details match.
Solutions to Child Separation:
The creation of child reunification cards, which may include ways to alert family members and pre-determined evacuation routes.
Conduct drills inform guardians and parents about emergency protocols to be followed as a means to improve reunification efforts.
The Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) allows educational institutions to provide student records in case of emergencies to enhance reunification exercises.
Post 2) Disaster strike suddenly and leave behind crushed and losses of lives, homes, and businesses. That may cause physical or emotional injury. Children may be more vulnerable after a disaster. Children are dependent on the caregiver who may be overwhelmed after a disaster. Disasters can affect children through many pathways. Short term and long term emotional impacts could face a child. Some of the short-term emotional impacts are fear, shock, anxiety, or grief. Long-term emotional impacts could be Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). For instance, feeling the sense that event is recurring, traumatic dreams, or Hypervigilance. These symptoms can remain for years. According to Carolyn Kousky (2016), â€œOne study of 387 children 9 to 18 years of age found decreases in post-traumatic stress and depression symptoms both two and three years after the storm. That said, almost 28 percent of the children still had symptoms three years after Katrina.â€
The language barrier will be stressful for a child especially if he is separated from the caregiver.
He can use a translator in the mobile. With the technology we have, the child can talk or write in the app and it will be translated.
use paper and pen to draw simple sketches or some simple cards with pictures.
In case of injury or pain, they can sign on the part that painful or acts what is happened to them.
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