psychology discussion question
Watch the documentary attached in the word document and respond to the following questions in the word document. Please don’t use other sources, and be aware of plagiarism. I will attached notes that the professor provide to the class and answer to the questions using those notes.Discuss your reactions and feelings (at least 2 total) to this documentary (one short paragraph)Why do you think people are drawn to the Golden Gate Bridge to commit suicide? Provide at least 2 reasons (one short paragraph)Select one of the individuals who suicided or attempted suicide in the documentary. What disorder do you believe this person has? Explain by using the DSM-V criteria and provide at least two (2) specific examples from the documentary of his/her behavior that supports the criteria (at least one paragraph)4. Why do you think your selected individual committed suicide? -Do you think his/her support system helped or hindered his/her life and mental disorder? Explain is a specific manner, using at least two examples. (At least one paragraphs)5. What did you learn (about life, death, people, etc.) from this documentary? Explain at least two (2) specific examples from the documentary and two meaningful things you learned from those specific examples (at least one well-developed paragraph)Requirements: in the word docFilm Reflection The Bridge?From The Bridge?People suffer largely unnoticed while the rest of the world goes about its business. This is a documentary exploration of the mythic beauty of the Golden Gate Bridge, the most popular suicide destination in the world, and those drawn by its call?.The BridgeDiscuss your reactions and feelings (at least 2 total) to this documentary (one short paragraph)Some reactions I had for this film were, I was sWhy do you think people are drawn to the Golden Gate Bridge to commit suicide? Provide at least 2 reasons (one short paragraph)Select one of the individuals who suicided or attempted suicide in the documentary.What disorder do you believe this person has? Explain by using the DSM-V criteria and provide at least two (2) specific examples from the documentary of his/her behavior that supports the criteria (at least one paragraph)4. Why do you think your selected individual committed suicide?-Do you think his/her support system helped or hindered his/her life and mental disorder? Explain is a specific manner, using at least two examples.(At least one paragraphs)5. What did you learn (about life, death, people, etc.) from this documentary? Explain at least two (2) specific examples from the documentary and two meaningful things you learned from those specific examples (at least one well-developed paragraph)Bipolar DisordersLearning Objectives:-Know, understanding, be able to apply disorders of Bipolar 1, Bipolar 2, and Cyclothymic;-evaluate the problem of diagnosis1) Bipolar I:SLP
involves full-blown mania (one or more) with episodes of major depressionDSM-V Criteria; 1 week, at least 3 symptoms?Inflated self-esteem or grandiosityDecreased need for sleepIncreased talkativenessRacing thoughtsDistracted easilyIncrease in goal-directed activity or psychomotor agitationEngaging in activities that hold the potential for painful consequences, e.g., unrestrained buying spreesMania is different from elated moodMania is clearly excessive; inappropriate and potentially dangerous behavior, irritability, pressured or rapid speech, and a false sense of well beingDramatic shifts in mood, energy, and ability to functionDuring depressed period ? all but immobileDuring manic period ? full of energyAt either extreme, the person has difficulty coping with the demands of everyday lifeRapid cycling; four or more severe mood disturbances within a single yearMixed state; simultaneous mania and depressionDSM-V Criteria; 2 weeks, at least 5Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every dayLoss of interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activitiesSignificant weight loss or decrease or increase in appetiteEngaging in purposeless movements, such as pacing the roomFatigue or loss of energyFeelings of worthlessness or guiltDiminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisivenessRecurrent thoughts of death, recurrent suicidal ideation without a specific plan, or a suicide attemptDepressive symptoms don?t have to be present, usually are,-unipolar2) Bipolar II ? hypomania or mild mania,? with episodes of major depression4:44Hypomania ? may be overly talkative, excitable, or irritable, but there is no impulsive acts or gross lapses of judgmentHypomania lasts at least 4 days (96 hrs)More common than bipolar I (!!!)Person has one or more depressive episodes along with at least one hypomanic episodeMore depressive episodesProblem????3) Cyclothymic Disorder:Mood changes that aren?t as severe or common as in bipolar I and IIfluctuations that alternate between hypomanic and depressive symptomsbut not as severe as with full mania or major depression (aren?t as severe as in bipolar I and II)Unpredictable mood changesno evidence of major manic episode pr major depressive episode during the first 2 years of displaying cyclothymic disorderUntreated, can get worse?Genetics of Bipolar DisorderGenes associated with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia overlapBipolar and CreativitySince early Greek times people have linked bipolar symptoms to creativityIt?s likely bipolar disorder mood swings contribute to productivity and artistic insightAnecdotal ties exist, with many great artists showing signs of bipolar disorder & creativity-Brain Imaging and Bipolar DisorderfMRI studies suggest processes underlying the symptoms seen in bipolar disorder involve the anterior limbic brain networks consistent with emotional tasks-Environmental Factors, stress is associated with greater chance of relapse into bipolar disordersTreatment-Psychological Treatments for Bipolar Disorder involve stress reduction, reduction of negative interactions with others, and education about the condition-Medications for Bipolar Disorder involvelithium salts (lithium bicarbonate, lithium chloride, etc.), which aren?t as effective in those who rapidly cycleantipsychotics such as those used for schizophrenia-Antidepressants may cause shift to mania or rapid cyclingIntroBehaving dangerously; internal/external; Abnormal?-sufficient?Behaving dysfunctionally, maladaptive?; Abnormal?-sufficient?Several factors; different?1) There are significant disturbances in thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.Inner statesThoughtsbehaviors2) The disturbances reflect some kind of biological, psychological, or developmental dysfunction.3) The disturbances lead to significant distress or disability in one?s life.-inner experiences and behaviors are considered to reflect a psychological disorder impair function4) The disturbances do not reflect expected or culturally approved responses to certain events.Inconsistent with an individual?s developmental, cultural, societal norms?distress & functioningAbnormal behaviors in general U.S. populations?Mental Health Treatment in the Past
1. Ancient ViewsSupernatural; evil spiritsSomatogenic; bodyPsychogenic; stressRx; Trephination- a method to create a hole in the skull2. Greek and Roman ViewsHippocrates (460?377 BC)-to identify psychological symptoms: hallucinations, delusions, melancholia, hysteria, and mania -Environmental factors caused imbalance in4 humours?-eg., black bile= melancholia; dietHysteria, wandering uterus
3. Middle Ages-Roman Catholic Church?demons-plague, famines-Supernatural theories; superstition, astrology-treatments; prayers, confessions, atonements-persecution of women-Witchcraft 1400s-1700s (100,000 women slain)EX: Dancing Mania1000s of people; bloody feet, days & weeks, screaming, begging priests to save their souls, trance state4. Middle Ages to the Twentieth CenturyDix, 1840?”confined in this Commonwealth in cages, closets, cellars, stalls, pens! Chained, beaten with rods, lashed into obedience.” The most common complaints were that they were dark, cramped cells,with the lack of necessities, poor bathrooms and cruel chains and restraints.?Not only that, but the lack of actual treatment they were receiving was appalling. One girl was “chained in a cage and whipped to control her acts and words.”-moral treatment = kindness & occupation?Philippe Pinel, William Tuke, Benjamin Rush, Dorothea Dix, and Emil KraepelinNineteenth Century moral treatment characterized by:-removal of patients from warehouse??Psychoanalytic Revolution20th Century?.1. Sigmund Freud2. Unconscious; id, ego, & superego3. Environment = parents5. Infancy, particularly the first five years of life; oral, anal, phallic, latency6. -Sex & aggressionIs it fair to blame the parents as the root cause? for the development of mental illness?-Are there other factors to take into consideration when assessing one?s development of mental illness- and why?
LobotomyCh 7: Bipolar and Depressive DisordersLearning Objectives; know, understand & apply?-Major Depressive DisorderEtiology of depression, Genetics, Environmental FactorsTreatment-other types of depression-Perspectives of Disorders-Bipolar DisorderBipolar I, Bipolar II, Cyclothymic disorderGenetics, Biology, Environmental FactorsTreatment-SuicideRates and Cultural Considerations,Prevention and Warning SignsI am a prisoner, locked up behind Xanax bars / I have just boarded a plane without a pilot?Black vs Gray Cloud?Depressive Disorders1. Not temporaryweeks, months, or years2. Impairment, work or be with friends and/or family3. Other physical and behavioral symptomsE.g., reduced appetite, sleep disturbance, loss of interest in usual pursuitsNormal? SadnessMore easily shaken offLess severeNo/minimal physical/behavioral symptomsWhat are they feeling? Depression?Heads Up, Class ActivityI) Major Depressive Disorderi) CharacteristicsDiagnostic Criteria (DSM-V) see posted files5 or more of symptoms present for same two-wks, change, at least 1 must be #1 or #2-Depressed mood all day-Markedly diminished interest & pleasure in activities-Significant weight loss or gain (40% gain)-Insomnia or hypersomnia-Psychomotor agitation or retardation-Fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day-Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt nearly every day-Diminished ability to concentrate nearly every day-Recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal ideation
Episodic disorder; from single to multiple1 episode two weeks or more; impairs function16% one episode; recurrentii) Familial Connectionsintergenerational transmission depressionOffspring of depressed people have 5 times the risk of depressionPeople who develop depression have higher levels of anxiety prior to pubertyFamilial major depressive disorder has earlier onset, is more severe, is less responsive to treatmentiii) Developmental AspectsRise in adolescence; after adolescence, females > males (2-1)Shows in physical symptoms in childrenAreas of the brain linked to cognition are different in depressed adolescentsiv) Comorbidity; anxiety, substance abusePerspectives, Models, TheoriesPsychodynamic TheoriesBiological ModelsExistential/Humanistic TheoriesBehavioral TheoriesCognitive TheoriesSociocultural Theories1) Psychodynamic TheoriesFreudNormal/abnormal behaviors unconscious forcesEarly childhood; unresolved conflictAbn behaviors fr dysfunctional relationships– Defense mechanisms; way to prevent or cause abnormal behavior– Rx options: dream analysis, psychoanalysis, insight therapy?-Defense mechanisms; prevent & cause?-repression-sublimation-displacement-projection-reaction formation-insight, bringing patterns of behavior, feelings, & thoughts into awareness2) Psychological Treatment:Emotion-Focused Therapy (EFT)experience past emotional experiencesdon?t avoid them!changeprocess memories, in presentidentify maladaptive emotionsdepression, bad? sense of self?feel ashamed, EXPERIENCE IT!!…?rather than name/categorize itEmotions, not cognitionsdevelop emotional intelligenceeffective when person functionalTherapy specific to the individual-critical, felt like failures-felt abandoned and sad-felt empty, aimless?effective2) Psychological Treatment:Psychodynamic therapyRole of insight; past & present?patterns-how depressive symptoms related to past experiences-client?s behavior/relationships, how contribute to depression-helpless-dependent/responsible-angerWhere did the depression come from?-experiences w/loss or disappointment?-critical parents? Negative relationships?– Freud?s Mourning and MelancholiaAnger turned inward?Play dysfunctional relationships outin safe place!!!Role of transferencePlay out past conflicts in therapy-significant othersEX: critical upbringing;never succeed/never fail
Which psychological treatment most effective? Why?how thoughts can change brain?.V) Biological Treatments-direct manipulation of brain-psychotropic medications1) Medications; 2 typesOld generation (50?s/60?s)Tricyclic & MAO inhibitorsi) MAO inhibitors, monoamine oxidase??-Inhibits enzyme breaks down feel good? neurotransmittersDisadvantage; no food w/tyramine, hbp?Side effects; dizziness, dry mouth, constipation, etc?not the first choice!ii) New generation-Prozac?; SSRIs; more serotonin at the synapse; and SNRIsease of use, overprescribed?don?t understand how they work-Side effects, tolerate-Youth, suicide, black box? warningmismatch, physical energy & mood2) Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)-treatment resistant depressionHistory of concerns!!-violent seizures, injuries, bilateral electrodes, memory loss-now, muscle relaxants and unilateral-electrical current, seizure-mystery-6-12 treatments-confused, temporary memory lossCh 7 Etiology & TreatmentsThe Etiology of Bipolar and Depressive Disorders: Biological PerspectiveGenetic and family studies for bipolar disorderFamily, twin, and adoption studies support a genetic component with heritability ranging from 59% to 87%Genetic and family studies for major depressive disorderFirst-degree relatives of those with depression are two to three times more likely to suffer to depressionHeritability is about 31% to 42%Environmental factors and life eventsMajor depressive disorders may be associated with stress, loss, grief, relationship problems, occupational problems, and health challengesTeasing apart the relationships between stressful life events and mood disorders is difficultGenetic control of sensitivity to the environment-Two people can encounter the same stressful life event but experience it differentlyThe Etiology of Bipolar and Depressive Disorders: Psychological PerspectivePsychodynamic theory ? explains depression as anger turned inward?After a real or imagined lossMelancholiaDepression and mania are interlinked ? mania is a defense against unwanted or intolerable depressionAttachment theoryDisruptions in attachment lead to vulnerability to depressionTreatment of Bipolar DisorderMedications are the primary treatmentPsychological treatments
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (C B T)-Change inappropriate or negative thought patterns and behavior (journal); precursors, mood shifts, seek treatment, reduce relapse; family based treatment-Results of the effectiveness have been inconsistenti) Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (I P S R T)-Adherence to regular daily routines– based on Interpersonal therapy with social zeitgeber hypothesis time givers?; loss leads to unstable rhythms; sleep, physical activityBiological treatments-Lithium most commonly used medication-until recently, did not know how it works-Modulates glutamate levels; too much/too little-Intended as long-term therapy; problems, euthymic?relapseAnticonvulsant medications in combination with lithiumElectroconvulsive therapy (ECT)-Used when medication and psychotherapy are ineffective, in high suicide risk, or when medication is contraindicated
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psychology discussion question Watch the documentary attache…
psychology discussion question