# Plot the frequency distribution for “Age at Enrollment” by hand or by using SPSS

### Question Description

Complete Exercise 10 and 26 in Statistics for Nursing Research: A Workbook for Evidence-Based Practice, and submit as directed by the instructor.

Exercise 10

1.
What are the frequency and percentage of the COPD patients in the
severe airﬂow limitation group who are employed in the Eckerblad et al.
(2014) study?

2. What percentage of the total sample is retired? What percentage of the total sample is on sick leave?

3.
What is the total sample size of this study? What frequency and
percentage of the total sample were still employed? Show your

4.
What is the total percentage of the sample with a smoking
history—either still smoking or former smokers? Is the smoking history
for study participants clinically important? Provide a rationale for

5. What are pack years of smoking? Is there a
signiﬁcant difference between the moderate and severe airﬂow limitation
groups regarding pack years of smoking? Provide a rationale for your

6. What were the four most common psychological symptoms
reported by this sample of patients with COPD? What percentage of these
subjects experienced these symptoms? Was there a signiﬁcant difference
between the moderate and severe airﬂow limitation groups for
psychological symptoms?

7. What frequency and percentage of the
total sample used short-acting β 2 -agonists? Show your calculations and
round to the nearest whole percent.

8. Is there a signiﬁcant
difference between the moderate and severe airﬂow limitation groups
regarding the use of short-acting β 2 -agonists? Provide a rationale for

9. Was the percentage of COPD patients with moderate
and severe airﬂow limitation using short-acting β 2 -agonists what you

Exercise 26

1. Plot the frequency distribution for “Age at Enrollment” by hand or by using SPSS.

2.
How would you characterize the skewness of the distribution in Question
1—positively skewed, negatively skewed, or approximately normal?

3. Compare the original
skewness statistic and Shapiro-Wilk statistic with those of the smaller
dataset ( n = 15) for the variable “Age at First Arrest.” How did the
statistics change, and how would you explain these differences?

4. Plot the frequency distribution for “Years of Education” by hand or by using SPSS.

5.
How would you characterize the kurtosis of the distribution in Question
4—leptokurtic, mesokurtic, or platykurtic? Provide a rationale for your

6. What is the skewness statistic for “Age at
Enrollment”? How would you characterize the magnitude of the skewness
statistic for “Age at Enrollment”?

7. What is the kurtosis
statistic for “Years of Education”? How would you characterize the
magnitude of the kurtosis statistic for “Years of Education”?

8.
Using SPSS, compute the Shapiro-Wilk statistic for “Number of Times
Fired from Job.” What would you conclude from the results?

9. In
the SPSS output table titled “Tests of Normality,” the Shapiro-Wilk
statistic is reported along with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic. Why
is the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic inappropriate to report for these
example data?

10. How would you explain the skewness statistic for
a particular frequency distribution being low and the Shapiro-Wilk
statistic still being signiﬁcant at p < 0.05?

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