Caring for the patient with substance abuse2 |

Caring for the patient with substance abuse2 |

write a maximum of two paragraphs (with two to three sentences each). Describe what you would do differently than your peer. Also explain something new that you learned from your peers post. These paragraphs should synthesize one to two pieces of research.


Changes in physical appearance, mood swings, exhaustion, bloodshot eyes, tremors and shaking, weight loss, nausea and vomiting, slurred speech, and recurrent nasal bleeding are all possible physical findings to look for while screening a client with a substance use disorder.  The cardiovascular system is also affected by substances, which cause drug-dependent alterations in heart rate and blood pressure (Kalin et al., 2020). Disorientation, poor memory and focus, poor sleep patterns, worry, tension, irritability, agitation, and a lack of motivation in activities of daily living such as work, and eating are just a few examples of mental findings to expect in SUD. Additionally, disorientation, delusions, and hallucinations may be prevalent in SUD patients. The presence of cravings, difficulty in limiting substance use, and dangerous behaviors like violence are other psychological findings that may exist. The body’s physical and mental dependence on the substance, as well as the psychological impacts of the substance, are the rationales for these findings.

Stress, depression, anxiety, and social issues are potential catalysts for compulsive substance use or behavioral addiction (Kalin, 2020). Additionally, some substances might be triggers since they can cause cravings when seen, smelled, or tasted. Poverty, unemployment, job-related stress including working long hours and pressure, low recreational engagement or a lack of recreational facilities, high levels of stress and family issues, and boredom are all associated with substance use (Kalin, 2020). Moreover, many people gravitate to substance abuse and dependency as a result of social pressure, parental neglect, broken homes, and emotions of frustration and mental suffering. The results of substance abuse are addiction, and impulsivity, poor judgment.

There are three stages of addiction according to neurobiological theories. They are intoxication, withdrawal, anticipation, and desire, which could be seen as neurological alterations in the brain’s executive function, stress, and reward systems that get worse over time (Koob & Volkow, 2019). The reward system and the stress response in the brain interact extensively in the neurobiological mechanisms that reinforce addictive behavior. When drugs are abused, the mesolimbic dopamine pathway is activated, which increases the rewarding effects of both the drugs and the surroundings. The origin, development, and maintenance of drug use disorders have been discovered to be particularly dependent on abnormalities in the basal ganglia, extended amygdala, and prefrontal cortical regions of the brain.

In conclusion, addiction, dependence, and relapse are complex issues that involve numerous factors. It is important to recognize the physical and psychological findings of a substance use disorder and the potential triggers that can lead to compulsive substance use or behavioral addiction (Chen et al., 2019). Additionally, understanding the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie addictive behavior can help inform treatment, and medication-assisted treatments and psychotherapeutic interventions can help individuals manage their symptoms and stay abstinent.

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