(1) 150 words citation references
Nola Pender’s health promotion model is used to promote health behaviors by observing the family dynamics and promoting interventions that affect the family unit. The model has three main concepts. The first is that people are basically a sum of their parts, their individual biological makeup and their past experiences. Second, they have developed beliefs and characteristics based upon their interpersonal environment. The final concept is the goal, which is health promotion. The nurse is a part of the interpersonal experience, as well as the family. The individual’s perception of self-efficacy can be based on emotions related to past success or failures, the presence or absence of positive role models, and the presence of health disparities that can compete with the behavior change (Nursing Theories, 2011).
Pender’s model can help in teaching behavioral change, because it considers the multitude of dynamic forces at work in an individual’s life. According to the theorist, when a person’s interpersonal environment becomes supportive and positive, there is a greater chance of patient compliance. For incidence, if the person is a new onset diabetic and their family is not supportive with diet changes and do not modify the family meals, the patient is less likely to be compliant with their new diet.
Disparities such as age, socioeconomic status, educational level, disability, race, culture, or religious beliefs can affect a patient’ ability to learn. These factors can compete with the patient’s ability to participate in health promoting behaviors or limit access to health promotion resources. For instance, a person with limited English speaking ability may not have health promotion resources available in their native language (Whitney, 2018).
According to the transtheoretical model, change is based upon a person working through six stages. Change occurs when a person has had time to contemplate and make up their mind to take action (Whitney, 2018). People can be unwilling to change for many reasons. They might not be cognitively capable, physically ready, or psychologically ready (Ashton & Oermann, 2014). For example, newly diagnosed patients are often in denial or have not accepted the diagnosis, so they may not be willing to intitally learn about their condition or their care. Another example, is when a parent of a child with a TBI is still grieving and may leave the room when their child needs to be cathed, toileted, or connected to a feeding pump. In this case, patient teaching that includes the parent’s active participation in their child’s care is not the focus.
Ashton, K., & Oermann, M.(2014). Patient education in home care: strategies for success. Home Healthcare Now,32(5),288-294. Retrieved from
Nursing Theories. (2011). Health promotion model. Retrieved from
Whitney, S. (2018) Teaching and learning styles. In Grand Canyon University (Eds.), Health promotion: health & wellness across the continuum. Retrieved from
(2) citation references 150 words
Banduras Self efficiency theory of behavior change is a health promotion model that was made the model by Albert Bandura. This model focused on the feelings of self-efficacy can lead to competency (Whitney, 2018). Bandura believed that patients/individuals have the power to bring their own outcomes to fruition. Its stated that there are three factors influence self-efficacy which are behaviors, environment, and personal/cognitive factors. The theory focuses on how learning is influenced by repetition, reinforcement, and symbolic modeling. (Whitney, 2018). This model helps by giving power to the patient in changing their outcomes and behaviors.
Some barriers that effect a patients ability to earn and language, environment, socioeconomic status, illness and the patients readiness to learn. Language is an obvious barrier to learning, if a patients first language isnt English and the nurse who is caring for said patient only speaks English there is going to be an inability to teach/learn. In this situation the use of translators and informational and educational packets/ videos in the patients preferred language are helpful and overcoming this barrier. The environment in which learning or teaching is done is also very important. If the environmental is full of distraction, loud noises, family members and nurses in and out or even a roommate it can cause the patient to ot focused on the teaching that is taking place. Nurse must ensure that before teaching is done that the environment is prepared. This involves elimination of all distractions, turning of the tv, having family members and staff exit the room and so on.
If a patient isnt ready to learn or change the teaching is useless. Attitude and behaviors are one of the biggest factors in not just healing but learning as well. When patients arent ready or willing, the information they receive wont be absorbed or it will be ignored which will lead to possible worsening of the patients illness and negative outcome. A Nurse has to ensure the patient is in the right mindset to learn, receive information and change. This can be done be a simple readiness to learn assessment by the nurse.
Whitney, S. (2018) Health Promotion: Health & Wellness Across the Continuum. Grand Canyon University. https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs429vn/health-promotion-health-and-wellness-across-the-continuum/v1.1/#/chapter/1
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