1. I will post the question for you, so please read it carefully and answer it with your own words I don’t need any plagiarism and any outside sources.2. There is a video that we have to watch first before we do this assignment, so please watch it before you read and write the discussion. 3. Please take your time when you watch the video and write the discussion because it worth a lot of points. Good luck!
Now, I want to get into a little bit about what a claim is, simply because it seems like a necessary conversation that you might not have had before.
One thing a lot of people do is point to a dictionary definition, and in a paper (I think) that’s a move we can avoid. If a reader doesn’t know the definition of a word, they can look it up. I’m going to bring in a definition, but then I’m going to write directly to that. In fact, let’s look at two words:
claim | klÄm |noun1 an assertion of the truth of something, typically one that is disputed or in doubt: [with clause] : he was dogged by the claim thathe had CIA links | history belies statesmen’s claims to be in charge of events.2 a demand or request for something considered one’s due: the court had denied their claims to asylum.â€¢ an application for compensation under the terms of an insurance policy: he should make a claim on his house insurance for storm damage.â€¢ a right or title to something: they have first claim on the assets of the trust.â€¢ (also mining claim) a piece of land allotted to or taken by someone in order to be mined: each of them was to be rewarded with a farm and a number of mining claims in the land.
arÂ·guÂ·ment| ËˆÃ¤rÉ¡yÉ™mÉ™nt |noun1 an exchange of diverging or opposite views, typically a heated or angry one: I’ve had an argument with my father | heated arguments over public spending | there was some argument about the decision.2 a reason or set of reasons given with the aim of persuading others that an action or idea is right or wrong: there is a strong argument for submitting a formal appeal | [with clause] : he rejected the argument that keeping the facility would be costly.3 Mathematics & Logic an independent variable associated with a function and determining the value of the function. For example, in the expression y = F (x1, x2), the arguments of the function F are x 1 and x 2, and the value is y.â€¢ another term for amplitude (sense 4).â€¢ Computing a value or address passed to a procedure or function at the time of call.â€¢ Logic the middle term in a syllogism.4 Linguistics any of the noun phrases in a clause that are related directly to the verb, typically the subject, direct object, and indirect object.
These definitions appear to be pretty different, but I’d suggest that they’re similar. A claim is the “assertion that something is true, typically one that is in dispute or doubted,” and the key is that second clause. It shouldn’t be something that most people would agree with. If that’s the case, we don’t have a clear claim. I mean, why say it if mostly everyone is already on board with it?
We make a claim, and when claims come together, we get that first definition of the “argument,” which is an exchange of ideas. Now, while people are “typically…heated,” Dr. Cohen above and our experience with Toulmin and going into Rogers shows us that they don’t have to be. In fact, if we’re considering our rhetoric, they shouldn’t be angry (it’s hard to get people to listen and move to your side if they’re pissed off at you).
One thing I notice when I read a lot of student writing is that there will be sources, and those will be cited and maybe paraphrased and briefly explained. Then the paragraphs end, and they shouldn’t. The paragraph is over yet because while it showed me what someone else things, it doesn’t give me any insight into what the student thinks, or expand on the argument they’re making. In a sense, what happens is that we get a document that has a topic, and a lot of what others think about that topic, but it’s not clear what the student-writer is doing other than compiling voices on a topic. An argument is missing.
Now, I have some ideas about why this happens. Perhaps previous classes have focused on researching a topic, and seeing those other voices. Maybe an English 120 class put the emphasis on analysis, so the student-writer is trained to take an idea apart. These are good things to have worked on. But after we do research, and after we analyze the research we do, we have to make arguments/claims. Doing so means that we interpret the sources, and draw conclusions about the work we’ve analyzed.
For the sake of what we’re doing in here, I also want to make this clear: an argument or claim needs to be specific.
If you recall the first paper we did in here, the drive was to get specific. That means we weren’t writing about “the culture” or “society” or “America” or “Around the world,” or even “in San Diego.” Those are all too broad. I can’t really think of a single argument that applies to that kind of broad subjects. Let me tease this out a bit.
I’m a bit of an environmentalist. I’m scared of the impacts of climate change, and I believe people are capable of doing less harm than humanity is currently doing. This is not an argument. At best, it’s a warrant. I believe it. And I could back it with some large scale efforts; I get hope from things like the Paris Agreement (Links to an external site.), the Proposal to create a Green New Deal (Links to an external site.), and the San Diego Climate Action Plan (Links to an external site.). Those would be backing I could cite has support for my warrant that we can do better. But my argument would have to be more specific. I’m an advocate for biking.
Let’s say I use that to drive my argument:
“Everyone should ride a bike.” That’s an argument: I’m saying something should happen, and people will disagree with me. But it seems too general. I mean, what do I mean by “everyone”? I can’t expect the UPS force, food and beverage delivery, and construction equipment to move without trucks, right?
“People who don’t have to move large objects should ride bikes instead of drive vehicles.” That’s a little better. But what about people who can’t ride bikes? What about those who have to move children around, and/or are going like 20 miles each way to work? What about if they get a flat (much more common on bikes than on cars)? It’s a broad argument, still. So, I want to get more specific.
Maybe the problem is that it’s hard to make a clear argument what “people” or “everyone” should do. I mean, that’s a lot of different people to appeal to, and those two proposed arguments above sound more like warrants, really. I believe those things; they’re my opinion, but there are a lot of things that get in the way, and even a goofy hippy like me has to acknowledge that. I can’t tell everyone what they should do, at least not with the conviction that I need to go for in a paper.
But, if I think about the grounds of the San Diego Climate Action Plan, which says we have to reduce emissions in San Diego, and to do that, people need to drive their cars less, and if I have my warrants about bikes being a big part of that solution, I can start thinking of claims.
Maybe I want to say something like “The major road ways in San Diego need dedicated bike lanes.” But then I start to think that there are a lot of those, and how long should this paper be? Also, I come to learn that there’s a Regional Bike Plan (Links to an external site.). Maybe I pick one road, like El Cajon Blvd. I know El Cajon Blvd has an experimental bus and bike path that goes from Park to the 15 right now. I’ve ridden it. I want it longer. I could write, “The dedicated bus/bike lane on El Cajon Blvd must extend beyond the I-15, and go all the way to Baltimore.” From there, I’d consider why it should be the whole length, consider who it would serve, what kind of access it would provide and, to whom specifically. It’s specific, but it’s solid for one paper.
If I turn toward our Paper 2 topic, maybe I’m thinking that different people are influenced by different things, and it’s hard to nail all that down. Lots of things matter. Going back to the first paper, subcultures start to come into play. I’m a poet and English professor, and what people think about reading matters a lot to me. But just because they matter to me doesn’t mean that’s a huge consideration for everyone. I need to find some solid grounds.
I mentioned online dating in my sample in Paper 1’s prompt, so I looked through that section in the Opposing Viewpoints Database, and found this:
Birch, Jenna. “Why is it so hard to turn a Tinder date into a relationship?” Washington Post, 13 Sept. 2018. Gale In Context: Opposing Viewpoints, https://link-gale-com.ezproxy.grossmont.edu/apps/doc/A554084859/OVIC?u=sdccd_grossmont&sid=OVIC&xid=9ddcf345. Accessed 1 Apr. 2020.
It’s an article about how dating online is hard, and Tinder sets up some expectations that are largely based on physical attraction, and relationship don’t often last, because it’s difficult to really get to know people through the limited information available in online profiles.
Based on that, I have an argument: “There needs to be an online dating app that de-emphasizes the photographs, and shifts the focus to text.” I’d suggest that when I write this, I’m speaking to a specific audience of people who are have experience with online dating, but are also looking for substance in a potential partner, and substance articulated in writing. Does this exclude a lot of people? Yes! But that’s okay. Those folks have Tinder and Hinge and whatever other apps there are (my wife and I met online, but it was in pre-Tinder days, so my knowledge of newer services is limited).
I have a clear idea that I want to explore in body paragraphs with that claim. It’s about online dating, and has a specific call for a feature. Maybe I’d argue that one can access one image, but they need to spend at least 3 minutes on a profile before they can access other images (presumably, you’re reading for those 3 minutes, rather than finding a page, then putting the phone down until the other images open). I’d likely look at a few services to flesh out my ideas.
I might also look at another article that challenges my grounds, and use that as rebuttal. It was in the same database, same section:
Moore, Lane. “People really do find love on Tinder. That’s what keeps me swiping.” Washington Post, 23 Apr. 2018. Gale In Context: Opposing Viewpoints, https://link-gale-com.ezproxy.grossmont.edu/apps/doc/A535843987/OVIC?u=sdccd_grossmont&sid=OVIC&xid=c89050e8. Accessed 1 Apr. 2020.
From there, the paper starts to come together.
I know these things are difficult. I hope this mini-essay helps you get through it, especially if you’re going to get into some revision.
Please use this discussion to write a claim. It doesn’t have to be extensive, but let’s work on making claims/arguments in here. If you see someone make an argument you’re not sure you agree with, or you have a different argument about a similar topic, respond to them.
Take a shot at it, and it’s easy points!
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